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Glossary of Oil and Gas Terms 2

Glossary of Oil and Gas Terms 2


Abandon(1) The proper plugging and abandoning of a well in compliance with all applicable regulations, and the cleaning up of the wellsite to the satisfaction of any governmental body having jurisdiction with respect thereto and to the reasonable satisfaction of the operator.(2) To cease efforts to find or produce from a well or field.(3) To plug a well completion and salvage material and equipment.
Abatement (1) The act or process of reducing the intensity of pollution.(2) The use of some method of abating pollution.
American Petroleum Institute (API)The American Petroleum Institute is the primary trade association representing the oil and natural gas industry in the United States.
AnnulusThe space between: (1) The casing and the wall of the borehole.(2) Two strings of casing.(3) Tubing and casing.
APIAmerican Petroleum Institute
Api County Code An indicator developed by the American Petroleum Institute (API) to identify areas such as counties and other subdivision areas identified within state boundaries. Defined by API Bulletin D12A, as amended. This code becomes a part of the API Well Number.
Api State Code The indicator assigned to a state, as defined in API Bulletin D12A, as amended. This code is a part of the API Well Number (The Api State Code for Colorado is 05).
Api Well Number A well identifier assigned as defined in API (American Petroleum Institute) Bulletin D12A, as amended. The API Well Numbers are assigned by the appropriate state or federal regulatory agency.
Appraisal Well A well drilled as part of an appraisal drilling program which is carried out to determine the physical extent, reserves and likely production rate of a field.
Associated GasA well drilled as part of an appraisal drilling program which is carried out to determine the physical extent, reserves and likely production rate of a field.
BarrelA unit of volume measurement used for petroleum and its products (7.3 barrels = 1 ton: 6.29 barrels = 1 cubic meter).
bblOne barrel of oil; 1 barrel = 35 Imperial gallons (approx.), or 159 liters (approx.); 7.5 barrels = 1 ton (approx.); 6.29 barrels = 1 cubic meter.
bcfBillion cubic feet; 1 bcf = 0.83 million tons of oil equivalent.
bcmBillion cubic meters (1 cubic meter = 35.31 cubic feet).
BlockAn acreage sub-division measuring approximately 10 x 20 kms, forming part of a quadrant. e.g. Block 9/13 is the 13th block in Quadrant 9.
blow-down Condensate and gas is produced simultaneously from the outset of production.
Blow-out When well pressure exceeds the ability of the wellhead valves to control it. Oil and gas "blow wild" at the surface.
Blow-out preventers (BOPs)Are high pressure wellhead valves, designed to shut off the uncontrolled flow of hydrocarbons.
BOPSee blow-out preventers
Borehole The hole as drilled by the drill bit.
BradenheadA casinghead.
Bradenhead Test
CasingPipe cemented in the well to seal off formation fluids or keep the hole from caving in.
Casing stringThe steel tubing that lines a well after it has been drilled. It is formed from sections of steel tube screwed together.
Central estimateA range of exploration drilling scenarios from which the following activity levels, based on recent historical experience, are adopted as the central estimates.
Christmas treeThe assembly of fittings and valves on the top of the casing which control the production rate of oil.
COGCCColorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission
COGISColorado Oil and Gas Information Systems
Commercial field An oil and/or gas field judged to be capable of producing enough net income to make it worth developing.
CompletionThe installation of permanent wellhead equipment for the production of oil and gas.
Condensate Hydrocarbons which are in the gaseous state under reservoir conditions and which become liquid when temperature or pressure is reduced. A mixture of pentanes and higher hydrocarbons.
CoringTaking rock samples from a well by means of a special tool -- a "core barrel".
Crane bargeA large barge, capable of lifting heavy equipment onto offshore platforms. Also known as a "derrick barge".
Crude Oil Liquid petroleum as it comes out of the ground as distinguished from refined oils manufactured out of it.
Cubic footA standard unit used to measure quantity of gas (at atmospheric pressure); 1 cubic foot = 0.0283 cubic meters.
CuttingsRock chips cut from the formation by the drill bit, and brought to the surface with the mud. Used by geologists to obtain formation data.
DeepenTo increase the distance below a specified reference datum.
DerrickThe tower-like structure that houses most of the drilling controls.
Development phase The phase in which a proven oil or gas field is brought into production by drilling production (development) wells.
Drill(1)To bore a hole, Also see Drilling(2)An implement with cutting edges used to bore holes.
DrillingThe using of a rig and crew for the drilling, suspension, completion, production testing, capping, plugging and abandoning, deepening, plugging back, sidetracking, redrilling or reconditioning of a well (except routine cleanout and pump or rod pulling operations) or the converting of a well to a source, injection, observation, or producing well, and including stratigraphic tests. Also includes any related environmental studies. Associated costs include completion costs but do not include equipping costs.
Drilling rigA drilling unit that is not permanently fixed to the seabed, e.g. a drillship, a semi-submersible or a jack-up unit. Also means the derrick and its associated machinery.
Dry GasNatural gas composed mainly of methane with only minor amounts of ethane, propane and butane and little or no heavier hydrocarbons in the gasoline range.
Dry holeA well which has proved to be non-productive.
E&AAbbreviation for exploration and appraisal.
E&PAbbreviation for exploration and production.
Enhanced oil recoveryA process whereby oil is recovered other than by the natural pressure in a reservoir.
Exploration drillingDrilling carried out to determine whether hydrocarbons are present in a particular area or structure.
Exploration phaseThe phase of operations which covers the search for oil or gas by carrying out detailed geological and geophysical surveys followed up where appropriate by exploratory drilling.
Exploration wellA well drilled in an unproven area. Also known as a "wildcat well".
Farm inWhen a company acquires an interest in a block by taking over all or part of the financial commitment for drilling an exploration well.
FieldA geographical area under which an oil or gas reservoir lies.
FishingRetrieving objects from the borehole, such as a broken drillstring, or tools.
Formation pressureThe pressure at the bottom of a well when it is shut in at the wellhead.
Formation waterSalt water underlying gas and oil in the formation.
FracturingA method of breaking down a formation by pumping fluid at very high pressures. The objective is to increase production rates from a reservoir.
GGas.
G/CGas Condensate.
Gas field A field containing natural gas but no oil.
Gas injection The process whereby separated associated gas is pumped back into a reservoir for conservation purposes or to maintain the reservoir pressure.
Gas/oil ratio The volume of gas at atmospheric pressure produced per unit of oil produced.
Geographic Information Systems(GIS) A computer system capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information.
GIS See: Geographic Information Systems
HydrocarbonA compound containing only the elements hydrogen and carbon. May exist as a solid, a liquid or a gas. The term is mainly used in a catch-all sense for oil, gas and condensate.
Idle Producing
Injection well A well used for pumping water or gas into the reservoir.
JacketThe lower section, or "legs", of an offshore platform.
Kick A well is said to "kick" if the formation pressure exceeds the pressure exerted by the mud column.
Lay barge A barge that is specially equipped to lay submarine pipelines.
Liquefied natural gas (LNG)Oilfield or naturally occurring gas, chiefly methane, liquefied for transportation.
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) Light hydrocarbon material, gaseous at atmospheric temperature and pressure, held in the liquid state by pressure to facilitate storage, transport and handling. Commercial liquefied gas consists essentially of either propane or butane, or mixtures thereof.
mboeMillion Barrels Oil Equivalent.
Mechanical Integrity Test The act of setting a packer or retrievable bridge plug above the perforations in a wellbore and applying pressure to the annulus in order to ensure soundness of the casing.
Metric ton Equivalent to 1000 kilos, 2204.61 lbs.; 7.5 barrels.
MITMechanical Integrity Test
mmcfdMillions of cubic feet per day (of gas).
MoonpoolAn aperture in the center of a drillship or semi-submersible drilling rig, through which drilling and diving operations can be conducted.
MOU/MOAMEMORANDUMS OF UNDERSTANDING/AGREEMENT
MudA mixture of base substance and additives used to lubricate the drill bit and to counteract the natural pressure of the formation.
Natural gasGas, occurring naturally, and often found in association with crude petroleum.
Natural Gas Policy Act Of 1978Enacted on November 9, 1978 and became effective December 1, 1978. The Act has been amended, and it replaced or amended the Natural Gas Act. Refer to 15USC 3301-3432.
NGLsNatural gas liquids. Liquid hydrocarbons found in association with natural gas.
Ngpa SEE: Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978.
OOil.
O&GOil and Gas.
OilA mixture of liquid hydrocarbons of different molecular weights.
Oil fieldA geographic area under which an oil reservoir lies.
Oil in placeAn estimated measure of the total amount of oil contained in a reservoir, and, as such, a higher figure than the estimated recoverable reserves of oil.
OperatorThe company that has legal authority to drill wells and undertake the production of hydrocarbons that are found. The Operator is often part of a consortium and acts on behalf of this consortium.
PayzoneRock in which oil and gas are found in exploitable quantities.
PermeabilityThe property of a formation which quantifies the flow of a fluid through the pore spaces and into the wellbore.
PetroleumA generic name for hydrocarbons, including crude oil, natural gas liquids, natural gas and their products.
PlatformAn offshore structure that is permanently fixed to the seabed.
PorosityThe percentage of void in a porous rock compared to the solid formation.
Possible reservesThose reserves which at present cannot be regarded as ‘probable’ but are estimated to have a significant but less than 50% chance of being technically and economically producible.
Primary recovery Recovery of oil or gas from a reservoir purely by using the natural pressure in the reservoir to force the oil or gas out.
Probable reservesThose reserves which are not yet proven but which are estimated to have a better than 50% chance of being technically and economically producible.
Proven fieldAn oil and/or gas field whose physical extent and estimated reserves have been determined.
Proven reservesThose reserves which on the available evidence are virtually certain to be technically and economically producible (i.e. having a better than 90% chance of being produced).
RecompleteAn operation involving any of the following: (1) Deepening from one zone to another zone.(2) Completing well in an additional zone.(3) Plugging back from one zone to another zone.(4) Sidetracking to purposely change the location of the bottom of the well, but not including sidetracking for the sole purpose of bypassing obstructions in the borehole.(5) Conversion of a service well to an oil or gas well in a different zone.(6) Conversion of an oil or gas well to a service well in a different zone.
Recoverable reservesThat proportion of the oil and/gas in a reservoir that can be removed using currently available techniques.
Recovery factorThat proportion of the oil and/gas in a reservoir that can be removed using currently available techniques.
ReenterTo enter a previously abandoned well.
ReservoirThe underground formation where oil and gas has accumulated. It consists of a porous rock to hold the oil or gas, and a cap rock that prevents its escape.
Riser (drilling)A pipe between a seabed BOP and a floating drilling rig.
Riser (production)The section of pipework that joins a seabed wellhead to the Christmas tree.
Roughneck Drill crew members who work on the derrick floor, screwing together the sections of drillpipe when running or pulling a drillstring.
RoustaboutDrill crew members who handle the loading and unloading of equipment and assist in general operations around the rig.
Royalty paymentThe cash or kind paid to the owner of mineral rights.
Secondary recovery Recovery of oil or gas from a reservoir by artificially maintaining or enhancing the reservoir pressure by injecting gas, water or other substances into the reservoir rock.
Shut In WellA well which is capable of producing but is not presently producing. Reasons for a well being shut in may be lack of equipment, market or other.
ShutdownA production hiatus during which the platform ceases to produce while essential maintenance work is undertaken.
SI/TAShut In /Temporarily Abandoned
SidetrackA wellbore segment extending from a wellbore intersection along a wellbore path to a different wellbore bottomhole from any previously existing wellbore bottomholes.
SidetrackingThe well activity of drilling a new wellbore segment from a wellbore intersection to a new wellbore bottomhole or target.
Spud-inThe operation of drilling the first part of a new well.
Surface LocationThe location of a well or facility/measurement point.
Surface ReclamationA restoration of the surface as for productivity or usefulness.
Suspended wellA well that has been capped off temporarily.
tcfTrillion Cubic Feet (of gas).
Temporarily AbandonedThe act of isolating the completed interval or intervals within a wellbore from the surface by means of a cement retainer, cast iron bridge plug, cement plug, tubing and packer with tubing plug, or any combination thereof.
ToolpusherSecond-in-command of a drilling crew under the drilling superintendent. Responsible for the day-to-day running of the rig and for ensuring that all the necessary equipment is available.
TopsidesThe superstructure of a platform.
UICUnderground Injection Control
Underground Injection ControlA program required in each state by a provision of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) for the regulation of Injection Wells, including a permit system. An applicant must demonstrate that the well has no reasonable chance of adversely affecting the quality of an underground source of drinking water before a permit is issued.
Well logA record of geological formation penetrated during drilling, including technical details of the operation.
Wildcat wellA well drilled in an unproven area. Also known as an "exploration well". [The term comes from exploration wells in West Texas in the 1920s. Wildcats were abundant in the locality, and those unlucky enough to be shot were hung from oil derricks.]
WorkoverRemedial work to the equipment within a well, the well pipework, or relating to attempts to increase the rate of flow.